As antisemitism is rising globally. And as a result, it is swelling online. It is a duty for not just the Jewish community, but for the people who claim to be our allies, to know this information. It is important to know who you are following, to analyze their information for credibility, and to be a defender against white supremacy. Therefore, we have provided a description and short breakdown of several tropes, terms, dog whistles, and conspiracy theories. Further research is recommended and encouraged. This is a living document and by no means complete guide to antisemitism.
This has been specifically tailored to the Internet experience, focusing on how you may see it in online spaces so as to report it and prevent yourself and others from sliding down the alt-right pipeline.
Antisemitism not Anti-Semitism
There has been a rising debate on what antisemitism means and who it applies to. The word, “anti-semitism” was coined on the premise of pseudo-scientific race theory, alleging that “Semites” are a race of people, in order to give the hatred of Jews a scientific, rationalistic veneer.
Jews are not a race. This idea was founded upon bigoted, racial pseudo-science. We are; however, an ethno-religious group.
There is no such thing as “semitic people”--the term is derived from the semitic language family, which does exist (ex: Hebrew and Arabic). However, the curator of the term, Wilhelm Marr, defined it specifically to mean hatred of Jewish people only.
As a temporary solution, Jewish people have called to remove the hyphen as the term again, does not mean “to be against semitic peoples or languages”. To read it in a literal sense would be like saying “butterfly” means “flying butter”.
So it is best to strictly use “antisemitism” and not “anti-semitism”.
What is a Dog Whistle?
Simply put, a dog whistle is a coded message hidden in a word or phrase.
In the context of antisemitism, dog whistles allow for antisemites to communicate through specifically chosen words/phrases/numbers.
Just like only dogs can hear dog whistles, only people who know the true meaning of their code can understand what is being said.
This allows antisemites to communicate with one another while skirting content moderation as well as to covertly threaten Jews in a way that will not result in any consequences to them.
The use of dogwhistles allows for a type of threatening that usually goes unnoticed by those who aren't Jewish or educated on this topic.
This also allows for manipulation and gaslighting as the dog whistles are so innocuous that antisemites can say "how could this possibly be bad?" and shift the blame or skirt it all together.
It is important to note that not every symbol or phrase here is inherently antisemitic on its own.
This duality is why dog whistles are hard to spot and why context matters.
What are they using said terminology in regards to? Does it belong in the conversation? Why are there random numbers in somebody’s username? What symbol is used in their profile? Are certain messages being used together?
These are important questions to ask yourself when analyzing the context of whether or not something is antisemitic.
For example: someone commenting "ball point pens!" under a video asking "what is your favorite pen?" makes sense within the context and is not an antisemitic, Holocaust denying dog whistle.
The same comment under a post about Anne Frank would, in fact, be an antisemitic dogwhistle. This is why context is so vital in these discussions.
More than “Online Trolls”
More often than not, when encountering bigotry online or even in person, it is common to brush it off as merely “trolling”.
It must be understood that what you think is trolling causes real emotional and physical harm. The conversation of understanding hate is growing but is not being understood on a human level but rather a “fun fact” the non-affected group learned about.
These dog whistles, conspiracies, phrases, and slurs, all have historical and modern day contexts which leads to assimilation, violence, doxxing, and sometimes death. The people wielding these remarks can, and sometimes do, inflict violence offline, including synagogue shooters.
Recent synagogue shooters were indoctrinated into antisemitism both online and in person, but plastered their manifestos across their social media presences before committing egregious violence. Bigotry online is the diary of the bigotry in the streets. The Internet is real life.
Slurs, Dog Whistles, Conspiracy Theories
A mockery of the Jewish name Abraham.
The intentional mispronunciation of Ashkenazi (Correct: Ash-ki-nah-zee. Incorrect: Ash-ki-Natzi) to accuse Ashkenazi Jews of being Nazis.
Referring to the antisemitic conspiracy theory of deicide.
Antisemitic ethnic slur derived from “Hebrews”.
A mockery of the Jewish name Chayim.
The mockery of the Jewish name Isaac and Moses.
An antisemitic slur specifically targeted towards Jewish men.
While there are a lot of theories for the origin of this word, the most popular one is the claim that when Jews (mainly Ashkis from Eastern Europe) came through Ellis Island, they filled out documents with a circle rather than an “x” because an “x” is symbolism for a cross. Kikel is Yiddish for the word circle and therefore, the slur Kike became used.
A slur designed to accuse Jews of being untrustworthy.
A character from the Shakespearean play, The Merchant of Venice, in which the character is a Jewish money-lender who is an antagonist.
While it is not a slur, it can be deeply pejorative–particularly when weaponized as an insult. Frequently used by antisemites to skirt algorithms. Example: 'the Yahood/Yid/Zhyds are eating children again".
One representing the letter A and eleven representing the letter K, this numerical dog whistle is made to refer to the Aryan Knights (AK) which is an Idaho based white supremacist group.
While there are many variations, 100% generally refers to “100% white”, feeding into the “pure white race” belief.
May be written as 109/110. This refers to the idea of Jews being exiled from 109 countries. The “110” indicates the intent to ethnically cleanse Jews from another country (generally the one in which the antisemite resides).
One representing the letter A and two representing the letter B, these two letters represent the Aryan Brotherhood (AB).
One representing the letter A and three representing the letter C, these two letters represent the Aryan Circle (AC).
14 (14 words)
Fourteen words refers to a white supremacist slogan coined by David Lane, the deceased leader of the group “The Order”. "We must secure the existence of our people and a future for white children."
A numerical dog whistle that joins the “14 words” used by white supremacists in conjunction with “88” which refers to the eighth letter in the alphabet, “H”. “88” - “HH”, meaning Heil Hitler. 1483 may also appear which would instead mean Heil Christ.
6 million/6 gorillion
6 million refers to the number of Jews murdered in the Holocaust. Antisemites will use terms like “gorillion” and other variations to avoid detection as well as to denote exaggeration in reference to their belief that Jews exaggerate the Holocaust. The word “muh” may be added in front to represent “my '' in a weak or complaining manner, to reference that Jews are whiny.
An acronym standing for “Six Million Wasn’t Enough”, signifying that 6 million Jews being murdered in the Holocaust wasn’t enough.
A numerical dog whistle that references the eighth and third letters of the alphabet, “HC”, meaning Heil Christ. This specific version is often used by Christian antisemites and derives from the group known as Christian Identity.
Frequently joined in with “fourteen words”, 88 refers to the eighth letter in the alphabet, “H”, which means Heil Hitler.
Dog Whistles, Terms, & Conspiracy Theories
Standing for “A Klansman I Am” this allows members to greet each other covertly.
Arbeit Macht Frei
Translating to, “Work will set you free” in English, this phrase was put on the gates of Aushwitz as well as other Nazi concentration camps.
A form of Holocaust denial in which Neo-Nazi’s claim that Anne Frank’s diary is a falsified or entirely fake document because “ballpoint pens didn’t exist at that time”.
Referring to Jews as bankers invokes the antisemitic conspiracy/trope that all Jewish people control the banks and/or are stingy with money.
Blut und Boden/Blood and Soil
A vital Nazi slogan that emphasizes the Nazi rhetoric of "racial purity" (blood) and the settlement of land (soil) and return to the "true" Aryan ways, which Nazis partly believed had been upheld by rural German communities as they were "untouched" by Jews. This can be used in any language.
Blut und Ehre/Blood and Honor
A phrase popularized by Nazi Germany and Hitler youth, now commonly used across Europe and the United States by white supremacists.
Sometimes also appearing as Cultural Bolshevism, this antisemitic theory believes Jews are trying to overthrow “Western culture” and destroy “White America”.
A method of denying the Holocaust by suggesting that the gas chambers used to murder people were actually merely “delousing” facilities.
Alleging that Jewish people are more loyal or only loyal to Israel rather than their own country.
Early Life/Early Lifer
Referring to the Early Life section of Wikipedia, where one can find out if a person has been born into a Jewish family. A means of identifying someone as Jewish.
As a quick debrief, George Soros is a Jewish Hungarian-American who survived Nazi occupation. A relatively new conspiracy theory, alt-right organizations and white supremacists groups accuse George Soros of funding “far left” movements like Black Lives Matter, “Antifa”, pro-immigration protests, and also partaking in voter fraud. Most recently, on 1/27/2022 which is Holocaust Remembrance Day, Tucker Carlson aired a special titled “Hungary vs Soros: The Fight for Civilization”. Carlson likened being pro-immigration in Europe is akin to military invasion, which is “enabled by Soros”. Like the Rothschild conspiracy, Soros is used in replace of “Jewish” to fly under the radar.
Charging Jews with the allegations of being masters of the world or a “deep state cabal” controlling the government, media, and banks. As an extension, being “puppeteers” and creating illusions and false news for the non-Jewish world in order to fear monger for the new world to come (which they alleged Jews will be controlling).
The conspiracy theory that Jews are a greedy, money-obsessed group.
HH, standing for "Heil Hitler".
How long does it take for Cookie Monster to eat/bake 6 million cookies?
Referencing the antisemitic conspiracy theory that it was impossible for that number of Jews to have been murdered during the Holocaust. This comes in many variations, but generally relies on “how long” and “6 million”.
Khazars or Khazar Theory
An antisemitic conspiracy theory that the Ashkenazi Jewish people today come from ancient Khazars and are “not real Jews”.
A term used for sexual harassment towards Jewish women. Alternatively “milkies”.
An antisemitic conspiracy theory that believes that Jews steal money through the kosher certification. People believe that every purchase of a kosher item siphons money to the “Jewish elite”.
The conspiracy theory that reptilian humanoids are trying to take over the government and can be government officials or large corporate figureheads.
The term “muh” depicts a whining, complaining voice saying “my”, denoting that Jews exaggerate or ‘milk’ the Holocaust.
New World Order
A conspiracy theory that believes tyrannical socialists are going to take over the world by terrorist attacks, pandemics, and other disasters to take away worldly freedoms with the collaboration of government officials.
A term for a Jew who antisemites believe should have been murdered in the Holocaust.
Pepe The Frog
While not originating in Nazism or White supremacy, the meme was co-opted by the alt-right along Reddit, 4-Chan, and 8chan.
Protocol of the Elders of Zion
An antisemitic text that spreads the paranoid theory that Jews are planning to dominate the globe.
Holocaust deniers will sometimes use the term “Prussian Blue” to doubt that gas chambers ever existed, or more specifically that Zyklon B was used.
While a real family, this conspiracy now alludes to all Jews as “greedy bankers” or “greedy Jewish people who profit from war and control the economy either domestically or globally.
Coined by United States Republican representative Marjorie Taylor Greene, she tweeted that the California wildfires were started by the Rothschilds or an organized corporate cabal.
An antisemitic conspiracy that the Holocaust didn’t happen because of the existence of a “swimming pool” at Aushwitz and was instead a “resort”. In actuality, it was an aquifer turned into a swimming pool for SS soldiers and their families.
The Goyim Know
The full phrase, “Oy vey, the goyim know. Shut it down!” or “Da goyim know”, this antisemitic slogan is made to depict Jews as puppet masters. Piggybacking off the antisemitic belief that Jews control the media, government, and banks, this phrase is supposed to resemble a “panicked Jew when their “operations are figured out by non-Jews”.
The Happy Merchant
An antisemitic cartoon depicting a Jewish men with heavily stereotyped facial features. It has grown from its origins and now has several adaptations.
The Jewish Question/Problem
The problem is the existence of Jews. The “question” being how to deal with the “problem” of Jews. This results in Nazism, for example, with the Final Solution. The full phrase is, “The Final Solution to the Jewish Question”. This is a very shortened version of an extremely complex historical, political, and sociological topic.
Referencing the antisemitic conspiracy theory that it was impossible for people to have been murdered in the gas chambers as some had wooden doors. The conspiracy theory relies on the incorrect belief that wooden doors would have allowed the gas to escape and rendered them non-fatal and non-functional.
White Pride/Power World Wide.
You Will Not Replace Us
A phrase popularized in 2017 after the Charlottesville Nazi Riot. Sometimes appearing as Jews will not replace us or YWNRU, this antisemitic theory believes Jews are trying to “over-run the white race”.
Meaning “Zionist Occupied Government”, white supremacists curated this phrase to signal a “Jewish controlled government”, most commonly the United States.
The name of the gas used in nazi death camps to murder 1.1 million people. When in use by antisemites, it is a way of wishing death on Jews.
Christian Specific Antisemitism
“Christ was a Jew/Jesus was Jewish”
Often said by Christians when accused of antisemitism, invoking the phrase “Christ was a Jew” is meant to absolve the person of any wrongdoing regardless of how antisemitic they are being. Jesus being Jewish has exactly zero bearing on whether or not someone is being antisemitic and fails to recognize that the Church has been the creator, invoker, and has been complicit in antisemitic violence for a majority of its history.
The quote, “After these things Jesus walked in Galilee: for he would not walk in Jewry, because the Jews sought to kill him” from John 7:1, is often used to promote the trope of Jews being the ones who killed Christ but also utilizes the secondary trope in which Jews are “sneaky” or “conniving” and cannot be trusted.
While not the exact quote from the New Testament, Christian antisemites use this part in the Bible to say, “Jews are the children of Satan.” Recently in 2018, the white supremacist who went into the Tree of Life synagogue quoted this text on his social media page.
This part of the Bible accuses Jews of attacking Jesus by throwing stones at him. Christian antisemites usually quote this verse to further the myth that Jews killed Jesus to justify centuries of hatred or the full extermination of the Jews.
When weaponized, this verse is used to call Jews “untrustworthy enemies” because of their refusal of Jesus, as well as to justify violence against Jews due to the parable and Jesus’ line, "But those enemies of mine, who did not want me to reign over them, bring them here, and slay them in my presence.”
“He who is not with me is against me” is often used to attempt to convert Jews under threat of violence.
Matthew 23 (22:33-34)
The quote, “...you testify against yourselves that you are descendants of those who murdered the prophets...You snakes, you brood of vipers! How can you escape being sentenced to hell?” mimics a similar trope used in John 7:1. Christians who weaponize this verse also seek to accuse Jews as the ones who killed Jesus, accuse Jews of being venomous sneaks, but add the belief that Jews are destined to spend an eternity in hell for existing.
The ancestors of modern Rabbinic Judaism, Pharisees were one of the ancient sects of Judaism. It has been used by Christians to mean “hypocrites”---linking Jews, and the ancestors of modern Jewish thought, to hypocrisy, evil, and more. When it is used as an insult, it is cementing the belief that Jews are inherently untrustworthy, bad, or evil.
Revelations 2:9 & 3:9
Similar to John 8:44, Christian antisemites use the phrase “Synagogue of Satan” to carry on the centuries old libel of accusing Jews of worshiping Satan or being akin to demons, or being inherently evil.
Simeon/Simon of Trent
As a brief summary, Simeon/Simon of Trent began the myth of blood libel which is the belief that Jews sacrificed Christian children. People of Trent, which is in Northern Italy, assumed Jews in the area kidnapped and murdered Simeon/Simon. Jews of the community were arrested and tortured into confessing to the murder. Fifteen Jews were then sentenced to death and burned at the stake.
An important note is that while this began Medieval Europe, white supremacists today still believe in this today and has inflicted violence to the extent of mass murder. In the 2019 San Diego Synagogue shooting, the white supremacist quoted the Medieval myth in his manifesto.
“You are not forgotten Simon of Trent, the horror that you and countless children have endured at the hands of the Jews will never be forgiven,”
The shooter murdered 60-year-old Lori Gilbert and injured three others, one being an eight-year-old girl.
The full quote,
“For you, brothers and sisters, became imitators of the churches of God in Christ Jesus that are in Judea, for you suffered the same things from your own compatriots as they did from the Jews, who killed both the Lord Jesus and the prophets, and drove us out; they displease God and oppose everyone by hindering us from speaking to the Gentiles so that they may be saved. Thus they have constantly been filling up the measure of their sins; but God's wrath has overtaken them at last.”
When weaponized by Christians, they accuse Jews of being the ones who killed Jesus, stopping the spread of Christianity, and being eternally punished by God due to these actions and just by being Jewish.
The echoes were popularized in the middle 2010’s to signify that the user/peoples mentioned within the ‘echos’ are Jewish. Example: (((Jewitches))). In some cases, Jews have reclaimed this to outwardly signify themselves as Jews.
The most recognized symbol utilized by the KKK.
A square cross interlocking with or surrounding a circle. The Celtic Cross (or sun cross, or wheel cross) came into use by Nazis in the 1930’s/40’s. This symbol was adopted by white supremacist groups around the globe. However, because it is a Christian symbol, it is also widely used by non-white supremacists, so context is needed in determining its intent.
Known by many names, including Lebensrune, the symbol is part of an early runic alphabet. It was heavily used by nazis, including the SS’s Lebensborn project (a project that encouraged the SS to have children with “Aryan” people and kidnapped “Aryan” children in order to raise as Germans. It stayed a popular Nazi symbol, including its adoption by the neo-Nazi National alliance. Like many runes, it may be used by non-white supremacist pagans, and context is needed to determine the intent.
A German military medal predating Nazi Germany, the swastika was added by Hitler’s regime. After WWII, it was dropped by the government, but wholeheartedly embraced by Nazis and white supremacists. It has become heavily used by bikers in the United States and subsequently spread to other subcultures in a ‘non-racist’ context. Context is needed when determining the intention.
The rune is part of multiple runic alphabets but was adopted in Nazi Germany in the 20th century. The Nazis utilized the rune in a myriad of ways, including the divisional insignia of two Waffen SS divisions. After the end of WWII, it remained extremely popular amongst white supremacists and Nazis. Many brandish it on flags, tattoo it on their bodies, include it in logos, usernames, and more. However, this rune may still be used by non-Nazi pagans. When spotted, it is important to look at the surrounding context to determine the intent of the usage.
Swastika / Hakenkreuz
Used on the center of Nazi Germany’s flag. Be cautious and respectful of traditional uses in religious practices such as Hinduism and Buddhism. Always use context clues.
Used by the original Nazi party, white supremacists now use the symbol as a unifying insignia for other aryan and neo-nazi groups to recognize each other. Sometimes, this symbol is coupled with other neo-nazi symbols like the wolfsangel or a swastika, but not always.
As Nazis searched for an “all-white religion”, this symbol became used in Nazi army divisions. It is now used by neo-Nazis worldwide.
Appropriated by Neo-nazis, Thors Hammer can sometimes appear with a swastika on it when in use by white supremacists. The symbol isn’t inherently antisemitic or racist but context matters. It may include other antisemitic imagery, like swastikas.
This symbol was used in several SS Waffen units but is now used across America and Europe to represent neo-Nazi as well as Aryan groups.
This symbol was used in several SS Waffen units but is now used across America and Europe to represent neo-Nazi as well as Aryan groups.
Two thunderbolt emojis together are used to represent “SS” (Schutzstaffel), aka the “political soldiers” of the Nazi party. While commonly used online, the use of these two symbols do appear offline.
While not originally a white supremacist symbol, the gesture now means “white power”. The three fingers represent a “W” while the thumb and pointer finger represent a “P”.
Used to mock Jewish noses, relying on stereotypical antisemitic depictions.
3rd Reich Eagle
Imagery of the Nazi government, used by white supremacists and Nazis.
Antisemite Pride Month
A Nazi Instagrammer created flag to signify all of April as “Antisemite Pride Month”. They have also declared 4/20 as “Antisemite Day” due to it being Hitler’s birthday. They have appropriated the Thai flag as a means of harassing Jews due to the vaguely similar colors. Be extremely cautious before calling out those who use the Thai flag as it will always be a representation of Thailand before it is a dog whistle.
A Disclaimer Regarding Norse Paganism/Germanic Heathenry
For historical context, the Nazis of the ’30s were determined in finding an “all-white religion”. This led to them spending an extensive amount of time reviving Norse and Germanic paganism for white people only. Today’s Norse Paganism and heathenry, while not a white supremacist religion, is heavily based in the works and writings of these Nazis and therefore at times does attract white supremacists, though not all Norse/Germanic Pagans/Heathens are antisemitic, racist, or white supremacists. They often share imagery, symbolism, terminology, etc, due to the nature of their history. This is why context is important.
In collaboration: Jewitches & Chaiya Mendel
Last updated: 8/10/22